At the beginning of the 1st millenium 3 colonising peoples lived in the Iberian Peninsula.
- The Phoenicians came from Eastern Mediterranean in searh of metals. They founded trading posts around the Mediterranean coasts: Gadir (Cádiz), Malaca (Málaga), Sexi (Almuñecar) and Abdera (Adra). Phoenicians introduced new crops like vines as well as other innovatios such as salt fish, potter´s wheel , purple fabric dyes from snails and alphabetic writing.
- The Greeks came from different poleis and settle in the Iberian Peninsula from the 8th century BC. They founded colonies around the Mediterranean coast being the most important Emporion ( Ampurias), Rhode (Rosas), Mainake ( Torre del Mar). Their colonies were used to trade with Iberians and celtiberians as well as Tartessos. The Greek colonizers spread money for commercial transactions, the use of writing and new crops like olive trees.
- The Carthaginians came from Carthage a Phoenician colony in the North of Africa. In the 7th century BC they settled in the Balearic Islands and in the 6th century they controlled the Phoenician colonies in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important Carthaginian settlements were Ebussus (Ibiza) and Carthago Nova (Cartagena). Not many Carthaginian remains have been kept.