The early history of Rome is still a mystery. The majority of Rome´s historical records were destroyed in 390 BC after the Barbarian invasion and sacking.
There are different stories explaining how Rome was founded. Some have a historical background but many others are tales and myths .
- Historically, Rome was first inhabited around 1000 BC. The village was set on Palatine Hill because it could be easily defended. Later on the village became a city. A public area was constructed from the hills of Palatine to Capitoline that was known as the Roman Forum.
- Myths related to the foundation of Rome tell about the story of the twins Romulus and Remus. The legend stated Romulus killed Remus and became the first king of Rome.
Traditionally the name of Rome comes from Romulus who was the first king.
While Rome was founded, Italy was settled by different groups:
- Latins who occupied the area near Rome.
- Greeks established in the South of the Italian Peninsula.
- The Etruscans live in the North of the Italian Peninsula.
Etruscans defeated the Latins and became the kings of Rome. Before the Republic Rome The Kings of Rome Before the Roman Republic was formed, Rome was ruled by seven kings.
The king had all the power and a was adviced by council of 300 men called the senate. Senators had little power during the Monarchy.
Tarquin the Proud is considered the last king of Rome. He was a cruel so Romans and the senate rebelled and Tarquin left Rome. Then a new form of government was created: the Republic in 509 BC.
During the Republic, the government of Rome was in hands of two elected leaders called consuls. The consuls governed a year with the advise of the senate.