- Economy was based on agriculture and it was practiced in the narrow valleys in the Greek territory. The main crops were vines, olive trees, cereals, fruit and vegetables. Land mainly belonged to a limited number of landlords and the small farmers could not pay their debts so they easily became slaves, so they migrated to improve their living conditions.
- Livestock farming was based on goats, sheep, oxen and pigs.
- Trade was the most important activity. Greek traders sailed along the Mediterranean and used money in their transactions.
SOCIAL GROUPS were:
- Citizens were the only people who could participate in politics, they had to pay taxes and serve in the army. Members of the group were men born in the polis and whose parents were natives from the polis.
- Non-citizens could not participate in politics. It included:
- Foreigners or metics who worked in trade and manufactures as they could not own land.
- Slaves were prisoners of war, free citizens who could not pay taxes. They had the worst positions in mines, agriculture and domestic service.
- Women had no political rights.